Time and Space

Time and Space

Can time-travel be a part of science?

Physics is a science of travelling in time

Mathematicians have said the following about physics: ‘... if a mathematically correct result has been derived from considerations of the theory of physics, but the current methods of mathematics have not been able to reach the same result, that theory of physics must describe something real.’

Theory of physics of time-travel

The following materials present such physics which would enable a person (and other physical bodies) to actually move in time to the past or the future. Developing such technology will create new possibilities for studying human history and travelling in the Universe. The general research method of all the following materials is completely based on theoretical physics. For example, the hypotheses which are abundantly set in these materials have been derived theoretically. However, all these hypotheses are in complete compliance with all existing generally recognised theories of physics.
Initially, the topic has been approached in a non-traditional manner as all existing theories of physics that approach the actual possibility of travelling in time are based on the mathematical theories of wormholes or tunnels in spacetime. The conclusions made on the basis of the theories suggested in these works enable to describe these wormholes in a somewhat different manner, while also predicting their physical existence. These materials also provide possible expansions of existing theories of physics (for example, the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics) as without them, it would be impossible to understand the physics of time-travel.
The whole following research reveals a surprising fact that by its nature, that it is very real and possible fora person to travel in time (for example, to the past) and it can also be technically done. This is also the most surprising conclusion of the whole paper. Time-travel will become actually possible only if we continue developing two of the main theories of contemporary physics. However, research has gone even further than the physics of time-travel. If humans travelling in time becomes actually possible, it is inevitable that our current physical worldview of the Universe will change. For example, time-travel will demonstrate the timelessness of the Universe, in case of which there is no time in the known Universe.

Physics theories of time and space

The theory of time-travel described in these materials adopts as one if its physical bases the statement known from the theory of special relativity that time and space actually form a uniform whole called spacetime. This is one of the basic statements of the theory of special relativity. But its conclusion is that if one is moving to the past in time, they MUST move in a dimension of the space. This space ‘exists’ outside of the space we are able to sense in our daily lives. In terms of physics, this means that, for example, the equations of general relativity lose their validity when studying this space, as in such a space there no longer is any time or space, which is physically manifested in time becoming infinitely slow and distances becoming infinitely short. For this reason, the movement of bodies will no longer take any time ‘there’ and bodies can be teleported. It is possible to teleport into the past, the future and in the present.


Classical mechanics was one of the first fields of physics and it studied time and space. For a long time, this was the only part of physics that described time and space, but changes occurred in the beginning of the 20th century, when two completely new theories describing spacetime arose – these were the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. One of the main statements of the theory of relativity is that time and space form a uniform whole called spacetime. This is proven by the fact that the speed of light in vacuum remains the same for all viewers. In the vicinity of large masses and in case of masses moving at extreme speeds, time and space begin transforming, i.e. time slows down and the lengths of bodies decrease for an external viewer.
However, in quantum mechanics, the physical state of bodies (i.e. particles) can be described only in the terms of probability. This means that it is not possible to foresee the physical parameters of the movement of bodies (for example, speed, location or coordinates etc.) as the so-called uncertainty relations are valid. Starting from the beginning of the 20th century until now, there have been no further developments. But these works stipulate new theories that explain the seemingly irrational phenomena occurring in those two theories. Until now, absolutely all theories regarding the possibility of time-travel were based on the theory of general relativity of Albert Einstein. This theory predicts the existence of wormholes or tunnels in spacetime. For example, who points in space (or time) are connected by a ‘spacetime tunnel’, passing which enables covering immense distances in space within a very small period of time.
According to them, it is possible to move in both space (outer space) and time. Such a physical understanding of time-travel exists also today. These works do not dispute this widely common understanding, but the theory is viewed from another angle. This means that the old theory is improved, resulting in the fact that when passing a tunnel in spacetime, the body will pass through two points in space (or time) within one moment. Such a possibility is known only as teleportation, which can exist only outside of spacetime. Later it can be seen that this fact causes the probable behaviour of particles, i.e. the creation of uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics.
Time and Space

String theory, the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics

The fact that the speed of light remains constant in vacuum shows that time (i.e. duration) does not flow in the same way everywhere, but it ‘moves’ differently in different systems. Space too is not Euclidean everywhere, but space (and also time) warps, for example, near massive bodies. This is shown to us by special relativity and general relativity. The uniformity of time and space results in the idea that in order to travel in time, we need to move in space, which is not the three-dimensional space we see around us every day. This in turn clearly shows that the transformations of time and space described in the theory of relativity result from the regularities described in the theory of time-travel. Transformations of time and space or the theory of relativity (and also quantum mechanics) are actually based on the theory of time-travel, which can be deduced in a very clear and strict manner.

The dimensions of spacetime

The central idea of string theory is that there are many more dimensions of spacetime than just four. For example, it is estimated that space has as many as ten dimensions and time has only one dimensions. Together this creates a 11-dimensional spacetime, which is projected by string theory on the basis of the knowledge we have now. But theories derived in these works (i.e. hypotheses) prove quite the contrary – there are not more dimensions of spacetime, but less (i.e. they stop existing). For example, this fact is revealed by the fact that time slows time and the lengths of a body decrease in the vicinity of large masses and the mass moving at accelerating speeds. The fact that the dimensions of space and time stop existing is also clearly seen in phenomena described in quantum mechanics.
Known experiments so fat show that particles seem to exist ‘outside of spacetime’. In physical terms this means that outside of spacetime there is no more time or space. The particles behaving as waves results from them teleporting in spacetime. A particle is also a wave and the physical parameters describing that wave are the same as the parameters of constant teleportation of a body in time and space. The fact that particles behave as waves has been proven in diffraction and interference experiments. Relativistic effects in the theory of relativity result from the transformation of time and space, which is manifested in the dimensions of time and space ceasing to exist.
General relativity describes the slowing down of time and the distance between two points in space decreasing (i.e. spacetime ceasing to exist) with geometrics caused by the existence of large masses in spacetime. The spacetime being warped is the main physical-mathematical existence of general relativity. The seemingly irrational effects described in quantum mechanics are manifested because time and space cease existing for particles, which is why particles teleport in time and space. All effects known in quantum physics are a result of particles teleporting and this is why the physical basic characteristics of teleportation described also in these works must be studied. All of this is in full concordance with the general interpretation of time-travel.
In the Republic of Estonia, theoretical physics can be studied, and this field is scientifically researched at the University of Tartu, TalTech, Tallinn University and the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics. All the aforementioned universities provide the option of acquiring a PhD in theoretical physics, also if the student can pay for it themselves.
At the University of Tartu, theoretical physics is clearly too focussed on the views of string theory (according to which the Universe has more than four dimensions), even though this physics theory has not been proven by experiments. The basics of string theory are also taught in the master’s and doctoral programs of physics in the University of Tallinn. However, the Tallinn University focusses mainly on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity or studying the nature of gravity and plasma physics (e.g. making a plasma focus device), which is mainly necessary for understanding the construction of a thermal-nuclear reactor. TalTech naturally focusses on technical specialities, but the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics focusses on the main topics in cosmology such as dark matter and dark energy in the Universe.
The theory of everything

Physics that explains everything

The following material explains rather the nature of physical phenomena and processes than their mathematical descriptions and therefore the physics presented seems to be more philosophy than true scientific physics. However, this is misleading, as the presented and deduces physical theories are based on specific existing and generally accepted mathematical equations. For example the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is the physical basis for the all general relativity, but it is now shown by mathematics, i.e. any mathematical equations. Such a relationship has been discovered by Albert Einstein purely on the basis of physical considerations. The same applies also the physics of time-travel. It is not shown by mathematics (e.g. the equations of relativity) but results also only from physical considerations. Physics has also used new interpretations. For example, Max Born interpreted electron waves as probability amplitudes. Probability amplitudes show the probability density of a particle in space and time. The wave function y (x, y, z, t) determines the probability density of the particle in time and space. The probability density of a particle y2 in a certain point of space and time is always positive. It can never be negative.

Physics of the Universe

The field of physics of the Universe studies the physical nature of the Universe. It is a physics theory that grew out of the physics theory of time-travel. This theory implies the nature of the Universe. For example, in psychology, the scientific question of what consciousness is and how it is created in the human nervous system, has arisen only in the last decades. The same applies to the mystery of the nature of the Universe. The scientific question lies in the physical nature of the Universe existing. For example, is the Universe truly just a large mechanical system that works according to certain laws? If the basis for everything existing is energy, which today is known to classical mechanics, this gives rise to the next question – what is energy itself? Here an attempt is made to answer such questions. The main thesis in the field is that there actually is no time in the Universe. The Universe itself is timeless as is revealed by the theory of time-travel. As all bodies in the Universe move in time (towards the future) and all events occur in time and space, the physics of time-travel is the basis for everything exiting. The timelessness of the Universe is the basis for many other new laws of physics which in summary lead to the understanding that there is no Universe. That is the true physical nature of the Universe.
Different papers mainly refer to the following physics theories: classical mechanics, theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, theory of time-travel, expansions of the theory of time-travel and the technical solution of time-travel. Electromagnetism mainly involves electrical and magnetic physical phenomena. However, classical mechanics is addressed very little. It describes the movement of bodies when the speeds are low (compared to the speed of light in vacuum) and masses are big (compared to the masses of particles). The theory of relativity is divided into two fields: special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity covers the part of physics, in the case of which the bodies move at very high speeds. This means that the bodies move at speeds close to the speed of light in vacuum. However, general relativity covers masses that curve spacetime. Gravitation is seen as curved spacetime. Quantum mechanics describes the behaviour of microparticles. The behaviour of particles is based on probability and they have wave-like properties. This means that microparticles have both corpuscular and wave-like properties. The theory of time-travel describes physical movement in time. For example, a person is able to move to the past or future in time. All physical bodies move in time – towards the future. And so, the theory of time-travel is be basis of the existence of the whole Universe (physics). Expansions of the theory of time-travel show the physical nature of the Universe. It lies in the fact that the Universe actually does not exist, which is based on the fact that the Universe itself is timeless. The technical solution of time-travel will teach how to create an actual time-machine. In order to create a time-machine, there has to be a generator that generates an electromagnetic field with very high energy. The main thesis is that in addition to mass spacetime is also curved by energy. It is revealed by the principle of energy and mass equivalence of Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity.
These works may give a misleading impression that already existing mathematical physics is given a completely new philosophical substance that is very different from generally acknowledged theories of physics. Wide use of existing mathematical physics may also give the impression that this provides certain authority to the philosophical ideas occurring in these works which are actually incorrect. But these impressions are misleading and are completely untrue. Existing maths actually describes the ideas and concepts presented in the theory of time-travel if we look at the mathematically described physical phenomena from a different angle. The following example helps to better understand this. When Lorentz created his mathematical conversion equations for space and time in special relativity, he was unable to understand the physical substance of these conversion equations back then. For him, the measurements of the time and space of different reference systems were unclear. Only Albert Einstein was able to understand that time operates differently in different reference systems and that time slows down when nearing the speed of light in vacuum, even though the mathematical formulations had existed for a long time before him. In the same way, the quantum mechanics part of the theory of time-travel has described different quantum phenomena with existing maths, but the maths have been given a somewhat different formalism (physical interpretation of the physical properties of physical phenomena).
Time-machine technology allows to move in time and teleport in space. In order for a person to be able to move in time (‘move’ into another moment in time) they firstly need to ‘exit’ the current moment of time (‘exit time’). Physically this means that a person needs to enter the area of spacetime where time has infinitely slowed down or ceased existing. It sounds logical that in case of 'exiting time’, time ceases to exist, does it not? This happens, for example, when the speed of light in vacuum is overtaken, because the closer a body gets to the speed of light in vacuum, the more time slows down and the length of the body decreases. But such an area of spacetime exists also, for example, in the centres of black holes. While being in such an area of spacetime, a person is no longer subject to the cosmological expansion of the Universe as the expansion of Universe is manifested in the distance between two points in space increasing (this means that the farther away galaxies are from each other, the more quickly they are moving away from each other). Movement in time becomes possible, as it essentially is movement in space, as time and space cannot exist without each other. It is a field that includes mainly advanced physics.
Is movement in time beneficial?

Why do we need time-travel?

Any intelligent civilisation reaching a point in their development in the Universe where they are able to travel in time will move into a completely new era in the development of that civilisation. Now we will take a look in the impact of time-travel on the future development of the humankind. Creating time-travel will affect the development of nearly all fields of human life. A time-machine is like a ‘cause and consequence technology’, which enables creating unbelievably many causal relationships between different events, inventions or discoveries. The impact of time-machine technology on some fields provided in the following part of the paper.

Physics of the Universe

As all bodies in the Universe move in time (towards the future) and all events occur in time and space, time-travel physics is the basis of all existence. This means that as absolutely all bodies in the Universe move in time (towards the future), the theory of time-travel is the fundamental basis for all physics of the Universe. The physical nature of the Universe results directly from the physical theory of time travel. This, however, means that if we are unable to move in time or we do not understand it, we cannot completely understand the physics of the Universe. For a long time, the development of physics was stuck in the seeming mysticism of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The theory of time-travel is a continuation of these two theories and also their combination.

Space travel

When time-travel is possible, it will also be possible to travel immense distances in the Universe within a very small period of time. According to the theory of time-travel, a spacetime tunnel will enable both: teleporting in time and space. There cannot be one without the other. A spacetime tunnel or teleporting in space enables humans to see cosmic objects with their own eyes. For example, it would be possible to travel between galaxies. In the future, space technologies could be developed on the basis of the time machine. Movement in space will show the Universe to people first-hand, not by proxy.

Perceptual psychology

The special form of consciousness studied by perceptual psychology also occurs in near-death experiences. This is confirmed by people's statements. But the existence of such psychological phenomena would be confirmed by paranormal phenomena, in case of which people see spirits or ghosts. This would mean that near-death experiences are not illusions of the brain and that a person can exit their body, which means that the phenomena of poltergeists and ghost should also exist. Their existence can be verified by time travel. This also enables to prove the psychological aspects studied in perceptual psychology as the state of consciousness studied in that field is similar to the form of consciousness experienced in case of near-death experiences.

The science of consciousness

Proving near-death experiences and the existence of spirits would ‘crush’ nearly all the theories of consciousness known today. It would prove that consciousness is not a neurobiological phenomenon, but rather a physical one. This means that consciousness is not based on neural structures in the brain, but fluctuations on the activity of neuron populations, in case of which they can become electromagnetic waves which are capable of leaving the brain when a person dies.


Time-travel can identify the existence of paranormal phenomena. By teleporting in time (or travelling in time) we can meet different civilisations who have existed on planet Earth in the past. By teleporting in space (or travelling in space) we can meet extra-terrestrial civilisations or life elsewhere in the Universe. Time-travel can confirm that aliens have been active on planet Earth. This also means that all events that have been named and described in the field of ufology can be confirmed by travelling in time. Also alien abductions that people (including witnesses) have claimed throughout times can be confirmed. For example, if the place and time of an event is known, the occurrence of the event can be confirmed by time-travel. This is an ‘historic chronicle’ of events that scientists have ‘unreasonably’ doubted until now.


Moving in time enables to see scientific achievements occurring in the future. A time-machine enables to see scientific developments. Time-travel also enables verifying the existence of paranormal phenomena. This will lead to serious scientific conclusions. Firstly, the option to travel in time expands the limits of science, which enables to study and discover phenomena, which have until now remained outside of science. This means that time-travel will become a new scientific research method. But, secondly, time-travel will show us that the scientific way of thinking cannot be completely right. The world has phenomena (for example, paranormal phenomena), which cannot be studied or discovered by scientific methods, and so they need to be just believed in. From this we can conclude that the scientific world view is faulty (which is proven by time-travel) and scientists have tried to cleverly ignore this.

Spirit civilisation

If people have actually exited their bodies, the cases of spirits or ghosts (poltergeists) should also be real. Ghosts, whom people have seen through ages, would be then people who have exited their bodies and who’s physical (biological) bodies have died. People have seen ghosts for thousands of years. But in such a case (via time-travel), spirits or ghosts could be studied using experiments. Studies carried out in the field of paranormal phenomena so far have shown that ghosts emit a weak electromagnetic field. These would confirm the thesis that consciousness exists after the brain has died as electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, the actual existence of near-death experiences would be proven.

Ancient history

A time machine enables travelling to the times of our ancestors and forefathers. To some extent, we could also understand the different creative processes occurring in the human brain, should we use time-travel to investigate the biological evolution of the human brain and very different ideas created throughout human history that have been expressed in art and culture. Moving in time also enables to see cultural phenomena occurring in the past and future. Culture differs throughout ages. In such a case, the multiverse could be seen in different ages. Moving back in time would also enable us to see how the first ape-men began walking upright and how fire was taken into use. We could see how human cultures have arisen and developed with our own eyes.
Impossible or possible?

Is time-travel even possible?

The Head of the Cavendish Laboratory (University of Cambridge), Sir Alfred Brian Pippard has considered physics as one of the expressions of human art: ‘...physics – it is something much more than a collection of laws, the implementation of which depends on simple experience. Physics – it is primarily lively creation of the hands and the brain, which is taught more through example than by cramming. It embodies the art of solving problems of the material world. And this is why physics needs to be learned, but learned as art.’


The general results of extensive studies have been astounding. Until now, everyone has thought that it is very difficult or even impossible to create a time-machine. But it is completely the other way around. Modern physics defines time as duration. In the theory of relativity, time is slower when the bodies move quicker or near large masses. It is possible to move in time ONLY when there is no time (i.e. duration) or outside of time. This seems to be impossible, but there are such areas of spacetime in the Universe where time is infinitely slow or has stopped, and so there is no more time. Such areas of spacetime exist in the centres of all black holes and this is a physical fact.
There, it is possible to travel in time within its complete reality. This is shown by theories derived from the provided works and these are also in full compliance with the generally acknowledged physics theories and in turn add to them. More additions are made particularly to quantum mechanics. The theory of time-travel described in these works is able to join together quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. This is possible for two reasons. General relativity itself describes travelling in time with its geometry of curved spacetime but moving in time is also a teleportation phenomenon. The reason for that is that moving in time does not take any time. All processes that exist outside of time, no longer take time, and this is why, for example, bodies are able to teleport in time or space.
This is also clearly shown in quantum mechanics. For example, quantum entanglement is possible on when time no longer exists. Particles teleport in the spacetime we sense and this also results in their uncertainty relations. This is why, quantum mechanics is actually a part of teleporting mechanics. Mathematically, teleportation can be described using metrics used in general relativity: for example, the distance between two points decreases infinitely small in space (for example, in the centres of dark holes) and this in turn means bringing more distant locations closer, to where you can arrive only in moments. This enables calculating physical parameters of teleportation.
Spacetime tunnel

A spacetime tunnel joins together two points in time and space.

A person can travel in time only when they end up in hyperspace or outside of spacetime. According to general relativity, ‘there’ the spacetime has curved to infinity (or time has infinitely slowed down and the distance of two points in space has also infinitely decreased). Such an area of spacetime (where the spacetime ceases to exist) exists, for example, in the centres of black holes and therefore black holes can be ‘gates’ through which it is possible to enter hyperspace.

Spacetime tunnels enable travelling in time

It has been generally acknowledged in the scientific world that it is possible to travel in time through spacetime tunnels or wormholes. Wormholes also help in space travel as by moving through a spacetime tunnel, vast distances in space will get a lot closer to us. A spacetime tunnel, popularly known as a wormhole, is a curve of time and space that joins to points in spacetime and enables to move from one moment in time into another or move from one point in space into another in a moment or 0 seconds. Theoretical physics has discussed the actual existence of wormholes extensively, which mainly arises from the existence of different interpretation of the physics theories of time and space. For example, a black hole can simultaneously be the entrance and exit of spacetime. As we know, gravitation is a curve in spacetime and on the Schwarzschild event horizon that is in the centre of black holes, spacetime has curved to infinity. Figuratively, the Schwarzschild event horizon is a border of spacetime, where the existence of time and space actually ends. By now, a new theory of physics has been developed that proves that the event horizon, on which time and space have curved to infinity, can also be physically interpreted as the entrance and exit of spacetime. Therefore, it can be said that spacetime tunnels exist in the Universe as black holes exist.
The question now lies in how the humankind would be able to artificially create such wonderful spacetime tunnels which would enable people to move in time and teleport in space. By now, this question has also been answered. Firstly, unfortunately black hoes cannot be created and used as they are clearly dangerous to our planet and the body near the black hole. As we know, nothing escapes the centre of a black hole, not even light. The black hole is created by huge mass. According to the principle of equivalence of mass and energy in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, a black hole or a tunnel in spacetime could also be created by energy. But the difficulty is that a tunnel in spacetime which could be used by a person can only be created by massive energy and we have nothing that would provide this energy. This is the whole difficulty in creating spacetime tunnels. As a comparative example – the energy required to create an object that would be the size of a spacetime tunnel passing through a person, a lot more energy would be required than the amount of energy equivalent to Earth’s mass. For a long time, the issue of energy was the greatest obstacle in creating spacetime tunnels. But now, new discoveries in theoretical physics have found a completely new way to practically solve this problem. It has become clear that there are two ways to actually create spacetime tunnels, the same way as in nuclear energetics, nuclear energy can actually be produced in two different ways. For example, the nuclear energy produced by humans is based on the energy released by splitting heavy nuclei or joining light atomic nuclei Something similar applies to creating spacetime tunnels. For example, a spacetime tunnel can be artificially created by using massive energies (as was mentioned above), but also by using extremely small energies. As energy amounts equivalent to the mass of planets cannot be produced or used in practice, the only remaining option is to use extremely small energies, which is certainly within the current technical capacities of the humankind. In addition to mass, time and space are also warped by energy and, for example, an electrical field has energy. Therefore, the mass and electrical charge of a physical body affect the geometry of spacetime. But what are extremely small energies? This is covered by scientific analysis in Marek-Larks Kruusen’s book Maailmataju, in the part covering the physics theory of time-travel that describes the technical possibility of humans actually travelling in time.

Singularity in the spacetime hole

The field of gravitation is a curve in spacetime caused by extremely heavy masses. This curve in spacetime is expressed in the fact, that the more we move towards the centre of the field of gravity, the more time slows down and the shorter the distance between two points in space becomes. Such a transformation of time and space continues until a specific distance from the centre, and this distance is described to us by the Schwarzschild radius R. This radius shows the distance from the centre of the field of gravity, starting from which time t and space l have transformed to infinity, i.e. starting from which the infinite curving of spacetime begins or the spacetime ceases to exist completely. This is why nothing can exist within the area inside Schwarzschild radius R of the black hole or spacetime hole, which is sometimes also called the event horizon. This also means that there cannot be any singularity in the centre of the black hole. Singularity is just a point, starting from which the Schwarzschild radius R is measured and which determines the ‘size’ of the black hole or spacetime hole, i.e. the size of an imaginary sphere in space, starting from which the infinity curve of spacetime becomes more and more level as the distance from the centre increases. This is why the mass of a black hole cannot exist within the event horizon, but is outside of it, as is also in case of stars and planets. The event horizon is completely spherical and it does not rotate. It can only orbit around another celestial body.
For a long time, the development of physics was stuck in the seeming mysticism of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The theory of time-travel is a continuation of these two theories and also combines them. This has also been implied in the magazine Imeline teadus (No. 10/2014, page 88-95), which writes: ‘After years of research, physicists have still not been able to join together the two theories (theory of relativity and quantum mechanics), which are the basis of modern physics, but the solution to the mystery might be hidden in the question of time-travel.’ Creating a time-machine is as important for the future development of physics as was discovering that the speed of light in vacuum is constant at the end of the 19th century. It is very important to understand the physical nature of the Universe and this is revealed particularly in the theory of time-travel.
The science of mathematical physics

Curved space shortens distances in space

The common understanding that the shortest route between two points in space is straight no longer applies in case of curved spaces. In case of curved space, the distance is even shorter than a straight route. In such a case, distances become a lot closer to us.
Albert Einstein's theory of relativity

Curved spaces are described by general relativity

Physical distance between two points in space, A and B, becomes shorter or the space also curves when nearing the centre of a field of gravity. These points are placed on the radius drawn from centre 0. When we move away from the centre of a field of gravity, the distance between two points in space increases. This is derived and analysed much more thoroughly in the theory of general relativity.
Spacetime tunnel or wormhole

Time-travel is enabled by a spacetime tunnel

The wormhole curves the spacetime, so that a direct route through another dimension can be used. This is why models tend to show a wormhole as two-dimensional and looking like a circle. But a three-dimensional circle looks like a sphere and this is why, in reality, a wormhole looks like a sphere. This means that a wormhole is actually a spherical hole or a hole in spacetime. Within the theory of time-travel we view the spacetime hole as a spacetime tunnel (or wormhole). This means that a spacetime hole and a spacetime tunnel are actually the same thing.

Illustration of curved space

A field of gravity can be replaced by a field of inertia. For example, the centrifugal force of a spinning spaceship pushes bodies towards the exterior walls of the spaceship. In a spinning spaceship, the wall becomes a floor that a person can walk on. Such a centrifugal force (or inertia) is similar to gravity. This is how the existence of gravity is simulated in a spaceship. Describing accelerating systems mathematically results in the concept of inhomogeneous space. Space curves around massive bodies. There bodies begin to accelerate. This is how gravity is explained. In a curved space, the accelerated movement of a free body is as self-explanatory as uniform straight movement in a 'straight’ or Euclidean space.

The theory of relativity

Time (or duration) is not uniform everywhere, but time ‘moves’ differently in different reference systems. Space is also not Euclidean everywhere, but space (and also time) curve around massive bodies. This is shown by special and general relativity. The effects of time and space occurring in the theory of relativity result from the regularities described in the theory of time-travel. The effects of time and space described in the theory of relativity are actually resulting from the theory of time-travel.

Actual cases of travelling tin time

Across the world, there are many known cases of people actually travelling in time. This means that throughout history, there have been cases of people actually travelling in time that have been documented and studied by scientists. These cases are not well known and also not very common. Nevertheless, their frequency exceeds the cases of self-combustion of human bodies. According to statistics, these events are a lot more common than we actually know. One of the possible reasons is that people who have travelled in time do not dare to talk about it publicly, fearing that they are deemed insane. Such cases have been studied for centuries and have been well documented throughout history. One of the most well-known research experts was Jenny Randles, who documented hundreds of cases of people travelling in time. What makes some cases unique is that they have been covered in a documentary and can be seen in old documentary series (for example Strange But True?) made in the 1990s.

"The Worlds First Time Machine (Science Documentary)"

"Time travel is one of mankind's favourite fantasies. But what if it were possible to build a real-time machine? To travel into the future or the past? Scientists are now teetering on making that impossible dream, reality. Originally broadcast in 2003. Content licensed by DRG Distributions. Any queries, contact us at hello@littledotstudios.com"

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"Is time travel possible? Brian Cox and Nalini Joshi offer their views"

"A questioner on ABC's Q&A asks whether it is possible for a person who invents a time machine in the future to travel back in time and show us how to make one. Panelists Nalini Joshi and Professor Brian Cox give their views. Brian Cox says you can't travel into the past, but Nalini Joshi disagrees."

"The Man Who Made Time Machine"

"Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009. His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics."